Gender differences in SME owner goals


In examining gender differences in the goals of 658 small and medium enterprise (SME) owner-operators in Western Australia, we found that the Bern SRI (sex-roles inventory) provided better results than the common proxy of biological sex.

For example, while we found no significant difference between men and women in terms of the importance they attached to extrinsic rewards, we found that the importance attached to extrinsic rewards was significantly positively correlated with masculinity (but not with femininity).

By way of contrast, the importance attached to staff relations was significantly positively correlated with femininity (but not with masculinity).


John Watson
Accounting and Finance, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA

Rick Newby
Accounting and Finance, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA


Arai, A. B. (2000), Self-employment as a Response to the Double Day for Women and Men in Canada, The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 37(2), pp. 125-142.

Aryee, S. (1993), Dual-earner Couples in Singapore: An Examination of Work and Non-work Sources of Their Experienced Burnout, Human Relations, 46(12), pp.1441-1468.

Auster, C. J. and S. C. Ohm (2000), Masculinity and Femininity in Contemporary American Society: A Re-Evaluation Using the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, Sex Roles, 43(7/8), pp.499-528.

Baines, S. and J. Wheelock (1998), Working for Each Other: Gender, the Household and Micro-business Survival and Growth, International Small Business Journal, 17(1), pp.16-35.

Baril, G. L., N. Elbert, S. Mahar-Potter and G. C. Reavy (1989), Are Androgynous Managers Really More Effective? Group and Organization Studies, 14(2), pp.234-249.

Bern, S. L. (1974), The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42(2), pp.155-162.

Bem, S. L. (1977). Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) in The 1977 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitors. Ed. J. W. Pfeiffer and J. E. Jones, University Associates: San Diego, CA, USA. pp.83-85.

Bianchi, S. M., M. A. Milkie, L. C. Sayer and J. P. Robinson (2000), Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor, Social Forces, 79(1), pp.191-228.

Bird, B. and C. Brush (2002), A Gendered Perspective on Organizational Creation, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(3), pp.41-65.

Bird, B. and M. Jelinek (1988), The Operation of Entrepreneurial Intentions, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13(2), pp.21-29.

Bird, B. J. (1988), Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: The Case for Intention, Academy of Management Review, 13(3), pp.442-453.

Bird, S., S. G. Sapp and M. Y. Lee (2001), Small Business Success in Rural Communities: Explaining the Sex Gap, Rural Sociology, 66(4), pp.507-531.

Bird, S. R. and S. G. Sapp (2004), Understanding the Gender Gap in Small Business Success: Urban and Rural Comparisons, Gender & Society, 18(1), pp.5-28.

Boden, R. J., Jr. (1999), Flexible Working Hours, Family Responsibilities, and Female Self-employment: Gender Differences in Self-employment Selection, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58(1), pp.71-83.

Boden, R. J., Jr. (1999), Gender Inequality in Wage Earnings and Female Self-employment Selection, Journal of Socio-Economics, 28(3), pp.351-364.

Borna, S. and G. White (2003), 'Sex' and 'Gender': Two Confused and Confusing Concepts in the 'Women in Corporate Management' Literature, Journal of Business Ethics, 47(2), pp.89-99.

Brodie, S. and J. Stanworth (1998), Independent Contractors in Direct Selling: Self-employed but Missing from Official Records, International Small Business Journal, 16(3), pp.95-101.

Brodsky, M. A. (1993), Successful Female Corporate Managers and Entrepreneurs: Similarities and Differences, Group & Organization Management, 18(3), pp.366-378.

Brush, C. G. (1992), Research on Women Business Owners: Past trends, a New Perspective and Future Directions, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(4), pp.5-30.

Bryant, S. (2000), At Home on the Electronic Frontier: Work, Gender and the Information Highway, New Technology, Work, and Employment, 15(1), pp. 19-33.

Buttner, E. H. (2001), Examining Female Entrepreneurs' Management Style: An Application of a Relational Frame, Journal of Business Ethics, 29(3), pp.253-269.

Buttner, E. H. and D. P. Moore (1997), Women's Organizational Exodus to Entrepreneurship: Self-reported Motivations and Correlates with Success, Journal of Small Business Management, 35(1), pp.34-46.

Buttner, E. H. and B. Rosen (1992), Rejection in the Loan Application Process: Male and Female Entrepreneurs' Perceptions and Subsequent Intentions, Journal of Small Business Management, 30(1), pp.58-65.

Carter, N. M., M. Williams and P. D. Reynolds (1997), Discontinuance Among New Firms in Retail: The Influence of Initial Resources, Strategy, and Gender, Journal of Business Venturing, 12(2), pp.125-145.

Carter, S. (2000), Improving the Numbers and Performance of Women-owned Businesses: Some Implications for Training and Advisory Services, Education & Training, 42(4/5), pp.326-333.

Catley, S. and R. T. Hamilton (1998), Small Business Development and Gender of Owner, The Journal of Management Development, 17(1), pp.75-79.

Cavalluzzo, K. S., L. S. Cavalluzzo and J. D. Wolken (2002), Competition, Small Business Financing and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey, The Journal of Business, 75(4), pp.641-679.

Cejka, M. A. and A. H. Eagly (1999), Gender-Stereotypic Imagers of Occupations Correspond to the Sex Segregation of Employment, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(4), pp.413-423.

Chaganti, R. and S. Parasuraman (1996), A Study of the Impacts of Gender on Business Performance and Management Patterns in Small Businesses, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 21(2), pp.73-75.

Cliff, J. E. (1998), Does One Size Fit All? Exploring the Relationship Between Attitudes Towards Growth, Gender, and Business Size, Journal of Business Venturing, 13(6), pp.523-542.

Constantinople, A. (1973), Masculinity-Femininity: An Exception to a Famous Dictum, Psychological Bulletin, 80(5), pp.389-407.

Cooper, A. C, F. J. Gimeno-Gascon and C. Y. Woo (1994), Initial Human and Financial Capital as Predictors of New Venture Performance, Journal of Business Venturing, 9(5), pp.371-395.

Covin, T. J. (1994), Perceptions of Family-owned Firms: The Impact of Gender and Education Level, Journal of Small Business Management, 32(3), pp.29.

Cowling, M. and M. Taylor (2001), Entrepreneurial Women and Men: Two Different Species, Small Business Economics, 16(3), pp.167-175.

Crant, J. M. (1996), The Proactive Personality Scale as a Predictor of Entrepreneurial Intentions, Journal of Small Business Management, 34(3), pp.42-49.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951), Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests, Psychometrika, 16(1), pp.297-334.

Culkin, N. and D. Smith (2000), An Emotional Business: A Guide to Understanding the Motivations of Small Business Decision Takers, Qualitative Market Research, 3(3), pp. 145-157.

Curimbaba, F. (2002), The Dynamics of Women's Roles as Family Business Managers, Family Business Review, 15(3), pp.239-252.

Danes, S. M. and P. D. Olson (2003), Women's Role Involvement in Family Businesses, Business Tensions, and Business Success, Family Business Review, 16(1), pp.53-68.

Dant, R. P., C. G. Brush and F. P. Iniesta (1996), Participation Patterns of Women in Franchising, Journal of Small Business Management, 34(2), pp.14-28.

DeMartino, R. and R. Barbato (2003), Differences Between Women and Men MBA Entrepreneurs: Exploring Family Flexibility and Wealth Creation as Career Motivators, Journal of Business Venturing, 18(6), pp.815-832.

du Rietz, A. and M. Henrekson (2000), Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis, Small Business Economics, 14(1), pp.1-10.

Fabowale, L., B. Orser and A. Riding (1995), Gender, Structural Factors, and Credit Terms Between Canadian Small Businesses and Financial Institutions, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 19(4), pp.41 25 pages.

Fagenson, E. A. and E. C. Marcus (1991), Perceptions of Sex-role Stereotypic Characteristics of Entrepreneurs: Women's Evaluations, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 15(4), pp.33-47.

Fasci, M. A. and J. Valdez (1998), A Performance Contrast of Male- and Female-owned Small Accounting Practices, Journal of Small Business Management, 36(3), pp. 1-7.

Fay, M. and L. Williams (1993), Gender Bias and the Availability of Business Loans, Journal of Business Venturing, 8(4), pp.363.

Fillmore, C. (2000), No Gender Gap? CA Magazine, 133(6), pp.22-25.

Fischer, E. M., A. R. Reuber and L. S. Dyke (1993), A Theoretical Overview and Extension of Research on Sex, Gender, and Entrepreneurship, Journal of Business Venturing, 8(2), pp.151-168.

Fitzgerald, M. A., M. Winter, N. J. Miller and J. Paul (2001), Adjustment Strategies in the Family Business: Implications of Gender and Management Role, Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(3), pp.265-291.

Gentile, D. A. (1993), Just What are Sex and Gender, Anyway? Psychological Science, 4(2), pp.120-122.

Geoffee, R. and R. Scase (1983), Business Ownership and Women's Subordination: A Preliminary Study of Female Proprietors, The Sociological Review, 31(4), pp.625-648.

Gherardi, S. (1994), The Gender We Think, the Gender We Do In Our Everyday Organizational Lives, Human Relations, 47(6), pp.591-610.

Goldberg, S. B. (1994), Odd Man Out: Does It Help or Hurt to be Male in the Paralegal Profession? Legal Assistant Today, 11(3), pp.58-63.

Greenstein, T. N. (2000), Economic Dependence, Gender, and the Division of Labor in the Home: A Replication and Extension, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(2), pp.322-335.

Grondin, D. and N. Schaefer (1995), Differences in the Export Activities of Female- and Male-owned Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, Women in Management Review, 10(8), pp.4-10.

Haines, G. H., Jr., B. J. Orser and A. L. Riding (1999), Myths and Realities: An Empirical Study of Banks and the Gender of Small Business Clients, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 16(4), pp.291-307.

Hankinson, A., D. Bartlett and B. Ducheneaut (1997), The Key Factors in the Small Profiles of Small-medium Enterprise Owner-managers that Influence Business Performance: The UK SME Survey 1995-1997 - An International Research Project UK Survey, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 3(3), pp.168-175.

Hansemark, 0. C. (2003), Need for Achievement, Locus of Control and the Prediction of Business Start-ups: A Longitudinal Study, Journal of Economic Psychology, 24(3), pp.301-319.

Hayes, R. (1989), Men in Female-concentrated Occupations, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(3), pp.201-212.

Helson, R., A. J. Stewart and J. Ostrove (1995), Identity in Three Cohorts of Midlife Women, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(3), pp.544-557.

Hisrich, R. D. and C. Brush (1984), The Woman Entrepreneur: Management Skills and Business Problems, Journal of Small Business Management, 22(1), pp.30-37.

Hofstede, G. (1980), Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values, Sage: Beverly Hills, CA, USA.

Hofstede, G. (1983), The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories, Journal of International Business Studies, 14(2), pp.75-89.

Hofstede, G. (1991), Cultures on Organizations: Software of the Mind, McGraw-Hill: London, England.

Hofstede, G. (1993), Cultural Constraints in Management Theories, Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), pp.81-94.

Hofstede, G. (1998). The Cultural Construction of Gender in Masculinity & Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Culture. Ed. G. Hofstede, Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. pp.75-105.

Holmes, S., S. Smith and G. Cane (1997), Gender Issues in Home-based Business Operation and Training: An Australian Overview, Women in Management Review, 12(2), pp.68 ff.

Hundley, G. (2000), Male/female Earnings Differences in Self-employment: The Effects of Marriage, Children, and the Household Division of Labor, Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54(1), pp.95-114.

Hundley, G. (2001), Domestic Division of Labor and Self/Organizationally Employed Differences in Job Attitudes and Earnings, Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(2), pp.121-139.

Kalleberg, A. L. and K. T. Leicht (1991), Gender and Organizational Performance: Determinants of Small Business Survival and Success, Academy of Management Journal, 34(1), pp.136-161.

Kanter, R. M. (1989), The New Managerial Work, Harvard Business Review, 67(6), pp.85-92.

Keats, B. W. and J. S. Bracker (1988), Toward a Theory of Small Firm Performance: A Conceptual Model, American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), pp.41-58.

Kim, J. L. S. and C. S. Ling (2001), Work-family Conflict of Women Entrepreneurs in Singapore, Women in Management Review, 16(5/6), pp.204-221.

Kirchmeyer, C. (2002), Gender Differences in Managerial Careers: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, Journal of Business Ethics, 37(1), pp.5-24.

Kolb, J. A. (1999), The Effect of Gender Role, Attitude Toward Leadership, and Self-confidence on Leader Emergence: Implications for Leadership Development, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10(4), pp.305.320.

Kolvereid, L. (1995), Prediction of Employment Status Choice Intentions, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 21(1), pp.47-57.

Kolvereid, L., S. Shane and P. Westhead (1993), Is It Equally Difficult for Female Entrepreneurs to Start Businesses in All Countries? Journal of Small Business Management, 31(4), pp.42-51.

Konrad, A. M. and C. Harris (2002), Desirability of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory Items for Women and Men: A Comparison Between African Americans and European Americans, Sex Roles, 47(5/6), pp.259-271.

Kourilsky, M. L. and W. B. Walstad (1998), Entrepreneurship and Female Youth: Knowledge, Attitudes, Gender Differences, and Educational Practices, Journal of Business Venturing, 13(1), pp.77-88.

Kuratko, D. F., J. H. Hornsby and D. W. Naffziger (1997), An Examination of Owner's Goals in Sustaining Entrepreneurship, Journal of Small Business Management, 35(1), pp.24-33.

Lamsa, A.-M., A. Sakkinen and P. Turjanmaa (2000), Values and Their Change During the Business Education - a Gender Perspective, International Journal of Value-Based Management, 13(3), pp.203-213.

Lee, J. (1997), The Motivation of Women Entrepreneurs in Singapore, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 3(2), pp.93 ff.

Litz, R. A. and C. A. Folker (2002), When He and She Sell Seashells: Exploring the Relationship Between Management Team Gender-balance and Small Firm Performance, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(4), pp.341-359.

Ljunggren, E. and L. Kolvereid (1996), New Business Formation: Does Gender Make a Difference? Women in Management Review, 11(4), pp.3 ff.

Loscocco, K. A. and K. T. Leicht (1993), Gender, Work-family Linkages, and Economic Success among Small Business Owners, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55(6), pp.875-887.

Loscocco, K. A., J. Robinson, R. H. Hall and J. K. Allen (1991), Gender and Small Business Success: An Inquiry into Women's Relative Disadvantage, Social Forces, 70(1), pp.65-85.

Mallon, M. and L. Cohen (2001), Time for a Change? Women's Accounts of the Move from Organizational Careers to Self-employment, British Journal of Management, 12(3), pp.217-230.

Marrone, S. (1996), Entrepreneurs Tout Gender as Career Asset, Central Penn Business Journal, 12(18), pp.13-16.

Marshack, K. J. (1994), Copreneurs and Dual-career Couples: Are They Different? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 19(1), pp.49-69.

Martin, L. (2001), Are Women Better at Organisational Learning? An SME Perspective, Women in Management Review, 16(5/6), pp.287-296.

Masters, R. and R. Meier (1988), Sex Differences and Risk-taking Propensity of Entrepreneurs, Journal of Small Business Management, 26(1), pp.31-.

Matthews, C. H. and S. B. Moser (1996), A Longitudinal Investigation of the Impact of Family Background and Gender on Interest in Small Firm Ownership, Journal of Small Business Management, 34(2), pp.29-43.

McGregor, J. and D. Tweed (2001), Gender and Managerial Competence: Support for Theories of Androgyny? Women in Management Review, 16(5/6), pp.279-286.

McKechnie, S. A., C. T. Ennew and L. H. Read (1998), The Nature of the Banking Relationship: A Comparison of the Experiences of Male and Female Small Business Owners, International Small Business Journal, 16(3), pp.39-55.

Merrett, C. D. and J. J. Gruidl (2000), Small Business Ownership in Illinois: The Effect of Gender and Location on Entrepreneurial Success, Professional Geographer, 52(3), pp.425-436.

Milkie, M. A., S. M. Bianchi, M. J. Mattingly and J. P. Robinson (2002), Gendered Division of Childbearing: Ideals, Realities, and the Relationship to Parental Well-Being, Sex Roles, 47(1/2), pp.21-38.

Miner, J. B. (1997), A Psychological Typology of Successful Entrepreneurs, Quorum Books: Westport, CT, USA.

Mintzberg, H. (1989), Mintzberg on Management, Free Press: New York, NY, USA.

Mukhtar, S.-M. (1998), Business Characteristics of Male and Female Small and Medium Enterprises in the UK: Implications for Gender-based Entrepreneurialism and Business Competence Development, British Journal of Management, 9(1), pp.41-51.

Naffziger, D. W., J. S. Hornsby and D. F. Kuratko (1994), A Proposed Research Model of Entrepreneurial Motivation, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(Spring), pp.29-42.

Nelson, M. K. (1999), Between Paid and Unpaid Work: Gender Patterns in Supplemental Economic Activities Among White, Rural Families, Gender & Society, 13(4), pp.518-539.

Newby, R., J. Watson and D. Woodliff (2004). A Scale for Measuring SME Owner-Operator Objectives: Further Development and Validation in Regional Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Ed. L. M. Gillin, J. Butler, E. Douglaset al, The Australian Graduate School of Management, Swinburne University of Technology: Melbourne, VIC, Australia, pp.104-124.

Newby, R. R., J. Watson and D. R. Woodliff (2003), Using Focus Groups in SME Research: The Case of Owner-Operator Objectives, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 8(3), pp.237-246.

Olson, S. F. and H. M. Currie (1992), Female Entrepreneurs: Personal Value Systems and Business Strategies in a Male-Dominated Industry, Journal of Small Business Management, 30(1), pp.49-57.

O'Neill, R. M. and S. D. Blake-Beard (2002), Gender Barriers to the Female Mentor - Male Protégé Relationship, Journal of Business Ethics, 37(1), pp.51-63.

Orser, B. and S. Hogarth-Scott (2002), Opting for Growth: Gender Dimensions of Choosing Enterprise Development, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 19(3), pp.284-300.

Parasuraman, S., Y. S. Purohit and V. M. Godshalk (1996), Work and Family Variables, Entrepreneurial Career Success and Psychological Well-being, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48(3), pp.275-300.

Pellegrino, E. T. and B. L. Reece (1982), Perceived Formative and Operational Problems Encountered by Female Entrepreneurs in Retail and Service Firms, Journal of Small Business Management, 20(2), pp. 15-24.

Perry, S. C. (2002), A Comparison of Failed and Non-failed Small Businesses in the United States: Do Men and Women Use Different Planning and Decision Making Strategies? Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(4), pp.415-428.

Peters, T. J. (1987), Thriving on Chaos: Handbook for a Management Revolution, Macmillan: London, UK.

Phillips-Miller, D. L., N. J. Campbell and C. R. Morrison (2000), Work and Family: Satisfaction, Stress, and Spousal Support, Journal of Employment Counseling, 37(1), pp. 16-30.

Poiesz, T. B. C. and J. von Grumbkow (1988). Economic Well-being, Job Satisfaction, Income Evaluation and Consumer Satisfaction: An Integrative Attempt in Handbook of Economic Psychology. Ed. W. F. van Raaij, G. M. van Veldhoven and K.-E. Wärneryd, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp.570-593.

Powell, G. N. and D. A. Butterfield (1979), The 'Good Manager': Masculine or Androgynous? Academy of Management Journal, 22(2), pp.395-403.

ProQuest Information and Learning Company (2000). ProQuest 5000 International, Bell and Howell Co., ProQuest Inc., and University Microfilms International, 2004.

Renzulli, L. A., H. Aldrich and J. Moody (2000), Family Matters: Gender, Networks, and Entrepreneurial Outcomes, Social Forces, 79(2), pp.523-546.

Riding, A. L. and C. S. Swift (1990), Women Business Owners and Terms of Credit: Some Empirical Findings of the Canadian Experience, Journal of Business Venturing, 5(5), pp.327 ff.

Robichaud, Y., E. McGraw and A. Roger (2001), Toward the Development of a Measuring Instrument for Entrepreneurial Motivation, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 6(2), pp.189-201.

Rosa, P., S. Carter and D. Hamilton (1996), Gender as a Determinant of Small Business Performance: Insights from a British study, Small Business Economics, 8(4), pp.463-478.

Rosa, P. and D. Hamilton (1994), Gender and Ownership in UK Small Firms, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(3), pp.11.

Rosa, P., D. Hamilton, S. Carter and H. Burns (1994), The Impact of Gender on Small Business Management: Preliminary Evidence, International Small Business Journal, 12(3), pp.25-32.

Sanders, C. K. (2004), Employment Options for Low-income Women: Microenterprise versus the Labor Market, Social Work Research, 28(2), pp.83-92.

Schein, V. E. (1973), The Relationship Between Sex Role Stereotypes and Requisite Management Characteristics, Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(1), pp.95-100.

Schein, V. E. (1975), The Relationship between Sex Role Stereotypes and Requisite Management Characteristics Among Female Managers, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(3), pp.340-344.

Scherer, R. F., J. D. Brodzinski and F. A. Wiebe (1990), Entrepreneur Career Selection and Gender: A Socialization Approach, Journal of Small Business Management, 28(2), pp.37-44.

Schiller, B. R. and P. E. Crewson (1997), Entrepreneurial Origins: A Longitudinal Inquiry, Economic Inquiry, 35(3), pp.523-531.

Scott, C. E. (1986), Why More Women are Becoming Entrepreneurs, Journal of Small Business Management, 24(4), pp.37-44.

Serwinek, P. J. (1992), Demographic & Related Differences in Ethical Views Among Small Businesses, Journal of Business Ethics, 11(7), pp.555-566.

Shane, S., L. Kolvereid and P. Westhead (1991), An Exploratory Examination of the Reasons Leading to New Firm Formation Across Country and Gender, Journal of Business Venturing, 6(6), pp.431-446.

Smith, C. R. (2000), Managing Work and Family in Small Co-preneurial Business: An Australian Study, Women in Management Review, 15(5/6), pp.283 ff.

Smith, N. R. and J. B. Miner (1983), Type of Entrepreneur, Type of Firm, and Managerial Motivation: Implications for Organizational Life Cycle Theory, Strategic Management Journal, 4(4), pp.325-340.

Spilling, O. R. and N. G. Berg (2000), Gender and Small Business Management: The Case of Norway in the 1990s, International Small Business Journal, 18(2), pp.38-59.

Stanworth, M. K. J. and J. Curran (1976), Growth and the Small Firm - An Alternative View, Journal of Management Studies, 13(2), pp.95-110.

Stevenson, L. A. (1986), Against All Odds: The Entrepreneurship of Women, Journal of Small Business Management, 24(4), pp.30-36.

Swanson, V., K. G. Power and R. J. Simpson (1998), Occupational Stress and Family Life: A Comparison of Male and Female Doctors, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71(3), pp.237-260.

Tharenou, P. (2001), Going Up? Do Traits and Informal Social Processes Predict Advancing in Management, Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), pp.1005-1017.

Tigges, L. M. and G. P. Green (1994), Small Business Success Among Men- and Women-owned Firms in Rural Areas, Rural Sociology, 59(2), pp.289-.

Twenge, J. M. (1997), Changes in Masculine and Feminine Traits over Time: A Meta-Analysis, Sex Roles, 36(5/6), pp.305-325.

van Auken, H. E. (1999), Obstacles to Business Launch, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 4(2), pp. 175-187.

Verheul, I. and R. Thurik (2001), Start-up Capital: 'Does Gender Matter?' Small Business Economics, 16(4), pp.329-346.

Walker, D. and B. E. Joyner (1999), Female Entrepreneurship and the Market Process: Gender-based Public Policy Considerations, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 4(2), pp.95-116.

Warneryd, K.-E. (1988). Introduction to Part III (Business Behavior) in Handbook of Economic Psychology. Ed. W. F. van Raaij, G. M. van Veldhoven and K.-E. Warneryd, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp.361-367.

Watson, J. (2002), Comparing the Performance of Male- and Female-controlled Businesses: Relating Outputs to Inputs, Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 26(3), pp.91-100.

Watson, J. and S. Robinson (2003), Adjusting for Risk in Comparing the Performances of Male- and Female-Controlled SMEs, Journal of Business Venturing, 18(6), pp.773-788.

Willemsen, T. M. (2002), Gender Typing of the Successful Manager - a Stereotype Reconsidered, Sex Roles, 46(11/12), pp.385-391.

Zhuplev, A., A. Kon'kov and F. Kiesner (1998), Russian and American Small Business: Motivations and Obstacles, European Management Journal, 16(4), pp.505-516.


PP: 088 - 110

Sign Me Up for latest release updates

*  Email Address:
    First Name:
    Last Name:
*  I am interested in:


Special Issues

Indigenous Enterprise and Small Business
Volume /

Freelancers and Independent Contractors
Volume /

Understanding small enterprises: Healthy lives in healthy businesses
Volume 21/2
Summary | Contents

Family Business
Volume 20/2
Summary | Contents

Home-based business + general section
Volume 17/2
Summary | Contents

Public policy and enterprise development + general section
Volume 17/1
Summary | Contents - The citation linking backbone

Website by Fig Creative Sunshine Coast Website Design